Saturday, 16 May 2015


-          The Challenges and the Breakthroughs of Stem cells -

Treatments with Stem cells need to be specific when the medical practitioners are applying it on patients; in fact it requires specialist and not just any medical practitioner, there are few experts who really know all it takes to treat patients via this specialize medication, and thus there are many things to be considered when you are looking for the real treatment from stem cells medication. 

This article is poised to enable you realized the basic danger in wrong application of stem cells therapy and to help you realized how and what are the vast opportunities available for treatment from stem cells.

Stem cells have tremendous promise to help us understand and treat a range of diseases, injuries and other health-related conditions. Their potential is evident in the use of blood stem cells to treat diseases of the blood, a therapy that has saved the lives of thousands of children with leukemia; and can be seen in the use of stem cells for tissue grafts to treat diseases or injury to the bone, skin and surface of the eye. Important clinical trials involving stem cells are underway for many other conditions and researchers continue to explore new avenues using stem cells in medicine.
But yet when they are applied wrongly it can be very dangerous to one’s health either in future or immediate.
  • Complications may create new short- and long-term health problems, and/or may make your condition or symptoms more difficult to manage
  • Receipt of one unproven or experimental treatment may make you ineligible for future clinical trials or treatment options
  • The possible short- and long-term side effects of a stem cell transplant depend on the type of transplant and vary from person to person.
  • The chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy given before stem cell transplantation and anti-rejection drugs that help prevent a patient’s body from rejecting donated stem cells weaken the immune system, increasing the risk of infection.
  • People who have a transplant that uses stem cells from another person are at risk of developing graft-versus-host disease, a potentially harmful side effect.
  • It is important to tell your health care team about any side effects you experience after the procedure or any changes in symptoms so they can be managed.
Stem cell transplant is also referring as a bone marrow transplant which is an effective treatment for types of cancer; bone marrow transplant can cause a number of different side effects. The type and intensity of these side effects vary from person to person and depend on the kind of transplant performed, the person's overall health, and other factors. There are health care teams to work with you to prevent side effects or manage any that occur. This is called palliative or supportive care and is an important part of your overall treatment plan. The two most serious side effects of stem cell transplantation are infection and graft-versus-host disease.

Furthermore, the amount, type, and severity of side effects depend on the patient’s health, the amount of previous treatment, and the type of transplant received. These side effects can usually be managed through medication and may go away over time. However, there is a risk of some permanent side effects from a stem cell transplant, such as infertility and cataracts. Talk with your doctors about the possible short-term and long-term effects you may experience before having a transplant.

Types of Stem Cells

The two main stem cells types are embryonic stem cells (ES) cells and adult stem cells (i.e., somatic stem cells). Other types, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are produced in the lab by reprogramming adult cells to express ES characteristics.

  • (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts of preimplantation-stage embryos. These cells require specific signals to differentiate to the desired cell type; if simply injected directly, they will differentiate into many different types of cells, resulting in a tumor derived from this abnormal pluripotent cell development (a teratoma). The directed differentiation of ES cells and avoidance of transplant rejection are just two of the hurdles that ES cell researchers still face.  
Secondly, when used the patient’s own cells or other’s blood cells that have cancer in their cells can also be disastrous, because the cells that contains cancer will surely not produce any positive result; rather the cells will further endanger the patient system by adding problem, instead of healing. That is why the experts must first run series of tests includes scanning of  the blood system for possible presence of unexpected diseases that could cause reactions and  cancer or many others as such in the cells before transplant.
Also, it is very important to scan stem cells for various diseases before banking or transplant. The better side of it is if blood or tissue is free from inherent cancer and the like’s diseases; such person’s stem cells can heal other people who are ill.

The Good Side of Stem Cells

The Good Side of Stem Cells is enormous and especially for its potential to reverse diseases.

The major characteristics of stem cells are the ability to differentiate into specialized cells and in order to reverse disease in tissues or blood cells; it is used to strengthen diseased cells to regain its freedom from disease in blood cells and organs of the body. It has been used for successful treatment of Parkinson, heart attack, genetic defects, burn victims have also benefited from the valuable opportunities of the specialized medications:
Heart Attack: a patient who is suffering a heart attack and sustained heart damaged could have their damaged tissues replaced by development of new muscle cells within that same organs or cells body.
Parkinson’s disease patients have also regains reversed damaged brain cells by application of stem cells treatment on them.
Genetic defects – patients with genetic defect from birth have also being restored with the introduction of normal healthy cells that do not have the defects anymore.
Burn Victims - have gained new and healthy tissue with the application of tissue replacement therapies, similar to the type done via bone marrow transplants where stem cells create different specialized tissues.
More to come on this article soon.

Wednesday, 25 March 2015

Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

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The International Diabetes Federation estimates that up to 95% of the 380 million people worldwide who are affected by diabetes suffer from type 2 diabetes. Thus, the potential impact of a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes is enormous. Despite obvious differences in the pathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes, both diseases are characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis resulting from insufficient insulin production by pancreatic beta cells. In type 1 diabetes, beta cell destruction by the immune system is rapid and extensive, causing severe insulin deficiency. In contrast, beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes occurs gradually over time and is associated with peripheral insulin resistance. 

Clinical studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes also have reduced beta cell mass and declining beta cell function during the progression from pre-diabetes to overt diabetes. Therefore, treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes should be aimed at restoring beta cell mass and/or function, in addition to improving insulin sensitivity.

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Ability to repair bone joint cartilage with stem cells improves further

Solution for patients with osteoarthritis for their painful joints by using stem cell therapy to regenerate damaged cartilage is getting  improved on daily basis; the researchers reported successfully producing cartilage in rats using embryonic stem cells.

Researchers hope their new stem cell protocol will one day be used to treat the painful joint condition osteoarthritis.

A new dimension or protocol for using human embryonic stem cells at the University of Manchester in UK has found a better developed way of using human stem cells to regenerate the laboratory rat was successful. It was reported after series of tests conducted on the laboratory rat was successful. 

The researchers report a study about their work - funded by Arthritis Research UK - in the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine. The study shows how they used the new protocol to grow and transform human embryonic stem cells into cartilage cells.

Leading the research is Sue Kimber, a professor in the Faculty of Life Sciences at Manchester, who, with her colleagues, hopes their approach could in future be used to treat the painful joint condition osteoarthritis. She notes:

"This work represents an important step forward in treating cartilage damage by using embryonic stem cells to form new tissue, although it's still in its early experimental stages."

Osteoarthritis mainly affects people over the age of 60, and is a major cause of disability. It is a degenerative disease caused by wearing away of cartilage in joints that have been continually stressed during a person's lifetime, including the knees, hips, fingers and lower spine region.

The World Health Organization estimates that around 9.6% of men and 18.0% of women aged over 60 years have symptomatic osteoarthritis.

Researchers generated precursor cartilage cells from embryonic stem cells

Cartilage cells - also known as chondrocytes - are formed from precursor cells called chondroprogenitors. In their study, the team describes how they used the new protocol to generate chondroprogenitors from human embryonic stem cells.

They implanted the precursor cartilage cells into damaged cartilage in the knee joints of rats.
After 4 weeks the cartilage was partially repaired. After 12 weeks, the cartilage surface was smooth and similar in appearance to normal cartilage.

Later examination of the regenerated cartilage showed that cartilage cells from the embryonic stem cells were still present and active in the tissue.

The study is promising because not only did the new protocol lead to regenerated, healthy-looking cartilage, but there were none of the adverse side-effects that have since dashed the high hopes raised in the early days of stem cell research - the growth of abnormal or disorganized tissue or tumors.

Testing the new protocol is the first step toward trials in human arthritis patients

Testing the new protocol in rats is the first step toward running trials in people with arthritis. But before this can happen a lot more needs to be done to show the protocol works and is safe. The team is already planning their next step to build on their findings.

Another approach to using human embryonic stem cells to generate new cartilage cells is using adult stem cells. Adult stem cells are found in certain "niches" in the body and are not as controversial as embryonic stem cells but their potential is not so great. Also, note the authors, they cannot currently be produced in large amounts and the procedure is expensive.

Dr. Stephen Simpson, director of research at Arthritis Research UK, says he is encouraged by the new study because:

"Embryonic stem cells offer an alternative source of cartilage cells to adult stem cells, and we're excited about the immense potential of Professor Kimber's work and the impact it could have for people with osteoarthritis."

He explains that current treatments for osteoarthritis can only relieve painful symptoms, and there are no effective therapies that delay or reverse cartilage degeneration. Joint replacements are successful in older people, but these options are not effective in younger people or athletes with sports injuries.
In January 2015, Medical News Today learned about a new project that is going to test a new bone growth-accelerating therapy in space. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station and scientists stationed on Earth are going to assess how well a bone-forming molecule called NELL-1 promotes bone formation and protects against bone degeneration.

Friday, 20 March 2015

New Hope for Kidney Disease Patients

 Solution for Scarring Disease

Written by: Chriskehin

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Recently, there is a new medical development discovery that now gives hope to patients with kidney scarring disease. It has been discovered that Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be developed by a number of many factors, such that may become permanent and irreversible.

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is a permanent and irreversible problem and when such stage is attained by any patient the only solution is dialysis or transplantation.

Monach University science research department has for the first time ever shown the effectiveness of a stem cell therapy with anti-scarring agent reversed scarring and markers of kidney injury.

Scarring effect is when excessive amounts of protein excreted in the urine, a condition known as proteinuria. As the blood vessels in the kidneys become damaged from scarring, the walls of the blood vessels begin to leak protein from the bloodstream into the urine. The excess protein may cause urine to take on a foamy or frothy appearance. Proteinuria is one of the first signs of kidney scarring, and many tests for kidney scarring involve testing for high levels of protein in the urine.

Kidney scarring is also known as glomerulosclerosis. which refers to the glomeruli, the clusters of miniscule blood vessels inside the kidney that filter wastes out of the blood for excretion in urine. The factors that can lead to kidney scarring include high blood pressure, diabetes, drug use, kidney infection and several diseases such as lupus, an autoimmune disorder resulting in hardening of body tissues.

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